The international community has begun to pay greater attention to Turkey`s efforts, particularly in view of the expiry of the Treaty of Lausanne. According to international law, any treaty expires after 100 years and Erdogan is working to link the expiry of this treaty in 2023 to the current situation in Mosul, northern Iraq, as well as Raqqa and Afrin in Syria. According to Mohamed Abdel-Kader Khalil, an Egyptian expert on Turkish affairs, “Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is linked to the use of Turkish military capabilities in the region. This is reflected in Turkey`s military concentrations on the borders with Iraq and Syria and in its engagement with the Red Sea through an agreement on the Sudanese island of Sawken, as well as the Turkish military intervention in the northern Syrian city of Afrin. With the expiry of the 100-year-old treaty in 2023, Turkey itself will enter a new era by drilling oil and digging a new canal between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara as a prelude to the levy on passing ships. This seismic evolution, combined with Turkey`s recent military adventurism, suggests that the geographical contours of the region will certainly undergo a gigantic metamorphosis after the end of the Treaty of Lausanne. To embody this, Pakistan should also formulate a strategy to take advantage of the opportunities that Turkey will offer in the coming days, given the emerging geopolitical realities. It is expected to develop a two-phase holistic plan before 2023 and after 2023. In addition, it should thoroughly examine the Turkish market and export products adapted to the needs of the Turkish population. Read more: Turkey hopes that the United States will extend the lifting of sanctions against Iran Subsequently, the “Lausanne II Conference” took place, whose work lasted three months and which led to the signing of the “Treaty of Lausanne”, an international peace agreement, on July 24, 1923 at the “Beau Rivage Plus” hotel in Lausanne, in the south of Switzerland. France and Italy) and the Ottoman Empire, which led its delegation to the conference, Ismet Inonu, and officially on the basis of which the Ottoman Empire was divided, and the Turkish Republic was founded under the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The treaty was recognized at the borders of the modern state in Turkey, and the allies` demands for autonomy for Turkish Kurdistan were reduced in exchange for the concession of land from Turkey to Armenia, and claims to the spheres of influence in Turkey were abandoned and control of financial transactions in Turkey or in the armed forces was imposed.

and it was announced that the Turkish Strait between the Aegean and Black Seas would be open to all, contrary to what happened in the Sèvres Convention. Recep Tayyib Erdogan`s statement on the eve of the centenary of the Turkish Republic is striking that something revolutionary will happen after 2023. He said Turkey will shape the future of the entire region if it achieves its 2023 goals. Turkey is on the cusp of new victories and successes, he added. The question is: will Turkey return after the expiration of the “Treaty of Lausanne 2”, a modern Ottoman Empire in the region? Will the geopolitical and economic map change and will the world enter a new phase of renewal of the Ottoman legacy? In September 1984, after years of negotiations, the British and Chinese signed a formal agreement authorizing the repatriation of the island to China in 1997 in exchange for China`s promises to establish Hong Kong`s capitalist system, and on the first of July 1997, Hong Kong took place in a ceremony attended by a number of Chinese and British personalities. officially handed over to China. The head of Hong Kong`s new government, Tung Chee Hwa, has established a policy based on the concept of “one country, two systems” that maintains Hong Kong`s role as a major capitalist center in Asia. .