According to health researcher Karen E. Koch, the first initiative of „collaborative management of drug therapy“ can be attributed to William A. Zellmers in 1995 in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. [4] Zellmer argues for the use of the term „collaborative management of drug therapy“ instead of „prescription,“ and argues that this will make laws that expand the authority of pharmacists tastier for legislators (and physician representatives). The most important is the debate on why pharmacists are interested in extending this authority: improving patient care through interdisciplinary cooperation. [5] The modern concept of collaborative practice has been partly derived from the controversial notion of dependent prescribing authority. [4] It is important to note that the term „collaboration agreement“ is not used in every state. The other terms are: Advanced pharmacy services as part of a CPA are described as collaborative management of drug therapy (CDTM). [a] While traditional practice for pharmacists provides that the legal authority recognizes drug-related problems (DOP) and proposes solutions for PDs to prescription persons (e.g.

B physicians), pharmacists who offer CDTMs solve PDs directly when they recognize them. This may include prescribing drugs to select and initiate drugs to treat a patient`s diagnosed illnesses (as described in the CPA), stopping the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs, and modifying a patient`s drug treatment (for example. B change in strength, frequency, frequency of administration or duration of therapy), evaluation of a patient`s response to drug treatment (including drug treatment). , such as.B. a basic metabolic panel) and the continuation of drug therapy (with a new prescription). [7] In 2010, the American Medical Association (AMA) published a series of reports entitled „AMA Scope of Practice Data Series.“ [61] One report focused on the pharmacy profession, which criticized the formation of CPAs as an attempt by pharmacists to intervene with the physician. In response to the report, a collaboration of seven national pharmacists` associations prepared a response to the WADA Pharmacists Report. [62] The response called on WADA to correct its report and publish the revised report with Errata. [63] In 2011, the WADA Chamber of Deputies adopted a more flexible tone of the APhA in response to contributions from aPhA and other pharmacy professional associations and finally adopted the following resolution, which focused attention on the rejection of independent (rather than collaborative or dependent) practical agreements: although the majority of states allow all licensed pharmacists to participate in collaborations , 18 states require specific training or training. These requirements range from relatively easy requirements, such as in Massachusetts, which requires only a PharmD degree or a BSPharm degree plus 5 years of experience, to the most demanding ones, such as in Maryland, which requires a PharmD or equivalent training; Certification as a specialist or completion of a residence, certification or examination training approved by a board of directors; Defined clinical experience and documented training in relation to the conditions of illness administered. The guidelines and legal requirements for the constitution of the CPA are defined on the basis of the state. [7] The federal government approved the CPAs in 1995.

[2] Washington was the first state to pass laws allowing formal formation of CPAs.